Tithi

A tithi is a lunar day. There are 15 tithis in the waxing cycle of the moon (shukla paksha), and there are 15 tithis in the waning cycle of the Moon ( Krishna paksha). The tithi is based on a relationship between the Sun and the Moon. The first tithi is 12 degrees of the Moon away from the Sun after the new Moon (Amavasya) or full Moon (Purnima). The second tithi is the next 12 degrees of the Moon away from the Sun, 12 to 24 degrees. A particular day is ruled by the tithi at sunrise, but the tithi can change anytime of the day or night as it is not based on the solar day.

Tithis vary in duration from approximately 19 to 26 hours, according to the movement of the Moon. Each tithi has a name, a ruling planet, and can be used in muhurta (picking a proper time).

The names of the Tithis are given below:

1. Pratipada
2. Dwitiya
3. Tritiya
4. Chaturthi
5. Panchami
6. Shashthi
7. Saptami
8. Ashtami (Half Moon)
9. Navami
10. Dashami
11. Ekadasi
12. Dwadashi
13. Trayodashi
14 Chaturdashi
15. Purnima (Full Moon),
Amavasya (New Moon)

 

Waxing and Waning:

The waxing Moon is called Shukla Paksha, the waning Moon is called Krsna Paksha. Paksha is a half month or half lunar cycle. Each Paksha has 15 Tithis, so Shukla Pratipat is the first day of the waxing Moon and Krsna Pratipat is the first day of the waning Moon.

In the traditional Vedic calendar system the tithis are used as dates, so one’s birthday would be on the same tithi as they were born, the relationship between the Sun (Father) and Moon (Mother) would be the same on one’s birthday as it was the day of birth. In this way, the Gregorian dates have no astrological relevance.


This is a nice visual, so one can connect the meanings with the actual phases of the Moon.

In picking a Muhurta one must understand the difference between Nakshatra and tithi, both relate to the mind. The tithi is ruled by Jala Tattva (the water element/Venus) and shows the state of the mind; whether it is excited, bored, nervous, afraid, agitated or calm. The Nakshatra is ruled by Vayu Tattva (the air element/Saturn) and shows what the mind will experience; whether it is going to be a pleasant or painful experience. The tithi is used to see if an event will be successful. It also shows whether people will cooperate with the project or not.

When looking at the natal chart the tithi is ruled by Jala and connected to Venus. It shows things related to passions and desires. One should see the birth tithi and see how the planet lording that tithi is placed in the natal chart. If it is strong then relationships are smooth. If it is weak, then relationships are rough. The tithi will indicate the attitude towards relationships

Planet
Tithi
Tithi
Sun
1
9
Moon
2
10
Mars
3
11
Mercury
4
12
Jupiter
5
13
Venus
6
14
Saturn
7
15
Rahu
8
0
The rulership of the tithis is based on the days of the week; Sunday (Sun) rules the 1st day, Monday (Moon) rules the 2nd , Tuesday (Mars) rules the 3rd tithi, Wednesday (Mercury) rules the 4th tithi, etc.Fasting on Ekadashi will get one over anger, because Mars rules it. Krsnas fast on the 11th tithi to be perfect peaceful Vaisnavas. No one will fight with the one who has done this fast for some time. Fasting on Ashtami will make it so you never cheat anyone, so will not get cheated. Fasting on the full Moon will give you truth as it removes the negative effects of Saturn.

These fifteen tithis are also broken down into five groups given below:

Nanda
Fire
1, 6, 11
Badra
Earth
2, 7, 12
Jaya
Akash
3, 8, 13
Rikta
Water
4, 9, 14
Purna
Vayu
5, 10, 15
Trittya tithi (3rd ) is ruled by Mars but as it is Jaya (ruled by akash/Jupiter) so it will bring two people together, as akash is the binding force (that keeps the jiva in the body). Ekadasi tithi (11th ) is ruled by Mars and it is Nanda (ruled by fire-Mars) so the fighting is very strong. Mars is passionate, energetic, and creates conflict, it is not good for marriage, though it is good for war and leadership.

For a person born in Nanda tithi, see what’s placed in Aries and Scorpio, look at the planets, and Arudhas. Tithi is about relationship, if Rahu is in Aries the person will have trouble from a widow/foreigner/eccentric in relationships. It shows important learning experiences in life. If a person is born in Nanda tithi, and Venus is in Scorpio, then the person will be likely have relationships outside of marriage. If the A10 is there the person will likely come from their work, A9 and it will be with Gurus, teachers, educators, if the A11 is there it will be with friends, etc. The Arudha shows where the problem will come from or where the person comes from. The house will also have a connection.
Specifics on Muhurta:

NANDA BHADRA JAYA RIKTA PURNA
1st day 2nd day 3rd day 4th day 5th day
6th day 7th day 8th day 9th day 10th day
11th day 12th day 13th day 14th day 15th-30th
Friday Wednesday Tuesday Saturday Thursday
When certain Tithis line up with specific Varas (days) they are considered auspicious and therefore work on those days is accomplished successfully. If Pratipat (1st ), Shashti (6th ), or Dwadashi (12th ) fall on a Friday, it is considered auspicious.

 

SUN. MON. TUE. WED. THUR. FRI. SAT.
DAGDHA 12th 11th 5th 3rd 6th 8th 9th
VISHA 4th 6th 7th 2nd 8th 9th 7th
HUTASHAN 12th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th
In the same way there are certain combinations that are inauspicious, where there will be hurdles in accomplishing works. These inauspicious Days have been called Dagdha, Visha, and Hutashan.

Varahamihira connects each tithi to a deity. Understanding the significations of the deity will also give a deeper meaning to each tithi, so that it can be used better in Muhurta.

#’s
Tithi
Planet Ruler
Division
Deity
1, 16
Pratipada
Sun
Nanda
Brahmä
2, 17
Dwitiya
Moon
Bhadra
Vidhäöå (Hari)
3, 18
Tritiya
Mars
Jaya
Viñëu
4, 19
Chaturthi
Mercury
Rikta
Yama
5, 20
Panchami
Jupiter
Purna
Chandra
6, 21
Shashthi
Venus
Nanda
Agni (Subrahmaëya)
7, 22
Saptami
Saturn
Bhadra
Indra
8, 23
Ashtami
Rahu
Jaya
Vasus
9, 24
Navami
Sun
Rikta
Naga
10, 25
Dashami
Moon
Purna
Dharma (Aryamä)
11, 26
Ekadasi
Mars
Nanda
Rudra
12, 27
Dwadashi
Mercury
Bhadra
Äditya (Savitre)
13, 28
Trayodashi
Jupiter
Jaya
Manmatha (Bhaga)
14, 29
Chaturdashi
Venus
Rikta
Kali
15, 0
Purnima,
Amavasya
Saturn/
Rahu
Purna

Vishvadevas/Pitås

Lunar Time
Each tithi rises and sets at a different time. One can be aware of the Moon rise just by knowing the phase of the Moon. Below is a moon-rise-dial that lists the approximate moon rise times for each tithi. The calculation is for the equator, on the equinox (sunrise and sunset at 6:00), with no lunar anomaly. Local rise times will have variation up to an hour.     

Freedomjis tithi based moon rise calculator

To learn more about tithis, look inside the free vedic calendar.